Brief information about GRID-technologies
Grid-technologies (Grid) allow one to create geographically distributed computing infrastructures which unify diverse resources and realize a possibility of collective access to these resources. The basic novelty of these technologies is association of resources by creation of a computer infrastructure of a new type providing global integration of information and computing resources on the basis of network technologies and a special software of intermediate level (middleware), and also a set of the standardized services for maintenance of reliable joint access to the geographically distributed information and computing resources: to separate computers, to clusters, to mass storage of the information and networks. The basic directions of development of grid-technologies are: computing grid, grid for intensive data processing and semantic grid for operating by the data from various databases.
From standardization positions (architecture, protocols, interfaces, services) grid-technologies can be characterized with the following set of criteria:
- coordination of using the resources in the absence of a centralized management of these resources;
- use of the standard, open, universal protocols and interfaces;
- maintenance of high-quality service of users.
Grid-technologies provide a flexible, secure and coordinated general access to resources which are understood not only as processor resources or resources of storage of the information, but also network resources, and also the system or applied software.
Technologies of the grid include only most general and universal aspects identical to any system (architecture, protocols, interfaces, services). Using these technologies and filling them with concrete meaning, it is possible to realize this or that grid-infrastructure, intended for the decision of this or that class of applied problems. Grid-technologies are not the technologies of parallel computations – the problem of grid technologies is only coordination of using the resources (though within the limits of concrete grid-system probably to organize parallel calculations with the use of existing technologies of parallel computing).
To construct a completely functional grid-system, the intermediate level software (middleware) is required which is constructed on the basis of existing tools and giving higher-level services for jobs and users. Creation and realization of grid-technologies is the difficult scientific and practical problem which is on a joint of a considerable quantity of scientific and technical directions.
Enormous work on distributing grid-technologies and working out standards is conducted by community of users, researchers and developers of “the Open grid-forum” (Open Grid Forum (OGF) (http://www.ogf.org)), representing about 400 organizations from 50 countries of the world.